decades, the subject of atmosphere has gone beyond the physio-meteorological
scope and become a new concept of aesthetics. As the primary sensuous reality
constructed by both the perceiving subject and the perceived object, atmosphere
is neither a purely subjective state nor an objective thing, but essentially is a quasi-object pervaded by a
specific emotional quality and a ubiquitous phenomenon forming the foundation
of our life experience. In this respect, a decisive factor is not what we
perceive but how we perceive. Furthermore, the quasi-objective quality of
atmospheric phenomena makes it possible that atmosphere is producible. A
practical dimension is thereby, from the outset, included in the consideration of this concept.
aesthetic research into atmosphere initially resulted from the consideration of
meteorological phenomena. Olafur Eliasson's “The Weather Project” is exemplary
for its artistic practice in this
field. With the combination of high-tech and natural elements, the focus of
this installation work is not on the weather process itself but
on creating a specific atmospheric space to develop viewers' immersive
perception of their surroundings. The museum itself is hence transformed into a site providing an immediate, multi-sensory
experience. Meanwhile, based on the criticism of the conventional museum institution that mediates or even manipulates art perception, revealing the construction behind the
construction is an integral part of the atmospheric design of the Weather
Project. This is characterized, on the one hand, by deliberately exposing staging strategies and, on the other hand, by creating unusual settings
to enable viewers to reexamine their perceptions in addition to the surroundings shaping them.
engagement; atmosphere; atmospheric design; emersion; immersion; The Weather
speaking, atmosphere refers to “gaseous mass emanating from celestial bodies and
surrounding them,” and later, as “the air layer around a planet, the gases enveloping a
planet or a star, and especially the aerial envelope of the earth.” Starting from the fundamental understanding
of aesthetics as a theory of general perception, first expounded in the eighteenth century by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, modern
aestheticians are giving increased attention to the wide range of human sensual
experiences. In a way, this transformation
challenges the art-centered understanding of aesthetics in the modern Western context that led to a narrowing of the
aesthetic field to vision and sound. Against this background, the concept of atmosphere has gone beyond the physio-meteorological
field and is coming more and more to the center of aesthetic research.
Benjamin's theory of aura is a pioneering study in the aesthetic exploration of
atmosphere. Etymologically, the word ‘aura’ comes from the Greek and means breath, breeze, or gentle wind. In Latin, aura is a visual object referring to shimmer. In the essay, "Das Kunstwerk im
Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit,” written by Benjamin in 1935, the concept of aura was
introduced in the field of aesthetics. In everyday life, aura means "eine
diffuse, im naturwissenschaftlichen Sinne nicht objektivierbare, oft jedoch
intensiv empfundene physisch-materielle 'Ausstrahlung,' die einen
Wahrnehmungsgegenstand zu umgeben scheint." ["A diffuse, in the scientific sense not objectifiable, but often
intesively perceived physical-material 'radiation,' which seems to
surround a perceived object."]
aura is difficult to understand in a sufficiently clear and precise manner.
According to Benjamin, objective components, such as material, color, form, and proportion, are reproducible in a
replica. On the contrary, the aura of the original is not transferable. To this, Benjamin wrote, "Hier und Jetzt des Kunstwerks - sein einmaliges
Dasein an dem Orte, an dem es sich befinden." [Here and Now of an artwork - its unique existence in the place where it is] A crucial factor of aura is thus its uniqueness. Here, the
uniqueness is to be understood in terms of time and place, namely that the location of the original and the perception of it
are unrepeatable and irreplaceable. Starting from this point, Benjamin
criticized the disappearance of aura in the modern age because of the
increasing spread of replication technology. Benjamin's exploration provided a critical
inspiration for atmosphere studies, the focus of which lies
particularly on vague, ambiguous, and invisible phenomena.
Schmitz, the founder of New Phenomenology, has dedicated himself to integrating the exploration of atmosphere
into his philosophical considerations of emotions. Contrary to conventional
thought that considered emotions as
private, psychological states, in
Schmitz's context emotions transcend the
subjective boundary and manifest themselves as spatially outpouring atmospheres that are characterized by the following points:
Emotions are atmospheres that can be objectively
perceived, without necessarily being internalized; and
atmospheric ambiances, emotions are corporeally poignant forces.
to Schmitz, although subjective correlation is a necessary precondition for
atmospheric emotions, the focus is placed on
their objective quality. In this respect, atmospheres manifest themselves as
free-floating phenomena having a high degree of independence. However, Schmitz ignores the fact that so-called
objectively existing emotions are also the results of the subjective
perception of the external surroundings. In this sense, the way of their
existence actually depends on how experiencers perceive them.
Böhme's studies are recognized as the most influential contribution to the
integration of atmosphere into aesthetics. According to Böhme, atmospheres are
ubiquitous phenomena that exert a far-reaching influence on our lives. Starting from this
point, he dedicated himself to studying the
relation between objective properties, like everyday
objects, artworks, and elements of nature, and the atmospheres they radiate. Special emphasis was placed on atmospheric
reception and production in various situations. In contrast to Schmitz, Böhme
never gave a single definition of atmosphere. Instead, he describes the
features of this phenomenon from several perspectives:
Atmosphere is an indefinitely diffused, emotionally poignant power whose ontological
status is vague and inexpressible;
Atmosphere is a tuned space affecting and even modifying human moods; and
Atmosphere is neither a purely subjective state, nor an objective thing, but
essentially a quasi-thing (Quasi-Objekt)
constructed by both perceiving subject and perceived object.
on the current discussions, the meaning of atmosphere can be interpreted as
follows. As the primarily perceived
object, atmosphere refers to a pre-reflective sphere in which human situation
and external conditions are corporeally brought together and are pervaded by a
specific emotional quality. From this perspective, particular attention should be given to the following
Atmosphere is the first object that is perceived, that is, what is primarily given or experienced, is atmospheric. The experience of atmosphere is usually characterized by
synaesthetic effects arising from the interaction of different senses.
sensuous reality, atmosphere is primarily corporeally experienced. In this aspect,
the role of lived body (Leib) moves to the foreground. As the access to
atmosphere, lived body contributes to a situation where, on the one hand, the meaning of atmosphere
is conveyed in a sensuously ascertainable, holistic manner and, on the other hand,
atmospheric manifestations are variable, unpredictable, and uncontrollable.;
Despite the diversity of atmospheric phenomena under different circumstances, a
specific atmosphere radiates a single emotional quality pervading the whole
space. Furthermore, this single quality is not constant and unchangeable but
finds itself in a dynamic process composed of different phases: emergence, strengthening, weakening, and disappearance.
quasi-objective quality of atmospheric phenomena makes it possible that
atmosphere is not only perceptible but also producible. At this point, a
practical dimension is included in the aesthetic consideration of this concept.
regard to atmospheric creation, three aspects are to be underlined.
a) The objective influence on the production of
the help of a wide range of media, such as light,
color, sound, culture-related symbols, and objects with a symbolic
meaning, atmospheres are produced that
influence or even modify our awareness of the surrounding world. For example, a warm atmosphere is not necessarily
associated with high temperature but can also be the result of the interaction
of gentle light, emotional music, warm scent, and white color. One example is James Turrell's
installation work, which aims at producing
light-toned spaces. In his “Wedgeworks,” the projected light creates the
illusion of walls or barriers. Through the light scattering and the
corresponding effect on the whole surroundings, these works fundamentally
change what is seen in this place and at this time. In seemingly realistic
forms, these virtual objects convey the impression that they really exist.
Moreover, there are always mutual interactions between environmental qualities
themselves, so the impact of a certain quality on the senses should be
considered in conjunction with the whole context. For instance, in a color
series, the aesthetic effect of the main color depends on its interplay with
the transitional colors.
interaction between perception and capacity for action
existence of atmosphere presupposes the corporeal presence of the perceiving
subject. The corresponding perception is not necessarily passive but can lead
to a specific action, regardless of whether this action is conscious. For example, at
the time of celebrations we cannot help but cheer. When we watch thrilling
football matches we are so excited that we stand up and applaud spontaneously.
Jean-Paul Thibaud stresses that perception and action are inseparably
intertwined. In fact, it is difficult to judge which one has the priority. Once we understand the correlation between the
perception and the rhythm and style of human action we can efficiently deal
with different atmospheric phenomena and hence become critical participators.
c) The role of the socio-cultural framework in
reinforcing an atmospheric effect
relationship between atmosphere, perception, and action is not solely limited
to the individual sphere. Rather, it is influenced by social-cultural factors,
too. Here is an example: Naturalness is the leitmotif throughout the classical
Chinese art of garden. Starting from this point, the natural characters of the
components should be retained as far as possible. If the perceiver is not
familiar with this background, it might be difficult for him or her to
appropriately react and be fully immersed in this natural atmosphere. The
perceiver might get an opposite impression, that the design style of the
Chinese gardens appears to be irregular, disorderly, and confusing. So we can
see that the sensory impressions can be intensified by a specific historical,
cultural framework. The actions of the perceivers, in the same socio-cultural
context, can correspond to each other and eventually form a common style of
reaction. For those who understand the Chinese natural philosophy, it is not
difficult to grasp the connotation of the harmony between humans and nature in
the Chinese garden art. In
this sense, Thibaud points out
that each atmosphere is related to a
certain action style that can be found in all perceivers under the same
3. Olafur Eliasson's “The Weather Project,” a case study
for atmospheric design and experience
following, particular attention is paid to artistic and art-related practices
because, by using them as an example, the theoretical insights of atmosphere can be tested, and further perspectives of the sensuous relationship
with the environment and nature can
be developed. Starting from this point, the Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur
Eliasson's “The Weather Project,” one of the most prestigious public art
projects, can be considered exemplary for atmospheric design and experience. As
one of the leading contemporary artists, Eliasson has built an international
reputation from his installations, site-specific sculptures, and photographs exploring the boundaries of sensorial
perception, nature, and science. His works
employ natural elements, such as wind, steam, water,
fire, ice, and clouds, that are combined with technical
devices, like light refraction and
reflection, mirror images, geometric models, kaleidoscopic image,
bioengineering, and laser technique, in unexpected ways. These images can be traced back to
his Icelandic roots that are
related to hot springs, volcanoes, and frozen landscapes.
is a topic that holds great interest for Eliasson. In 2003, "The Weather Project" was exhibited in the
Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Museum, in London. Starting from the ubiquitous
subject of weather, Eliasson explored the relationship between representations
of nature and human perception. The main materials of this experimental design
are monofrequency lamps, projection foil, haze machines, mirror foil, aluminum,
and scaffolding. At the opposite end of the hall is the representation of the
sun. The structure of the sun consists of semi-circularly arranged lamp group
behind a semi-transparent foil. Through
the arc repeated in the mirror overhead a radiant sphere is thus created,
symbolizing the link between reality and virtuality. The sky is represented by
a mirrored ceiling that dominates the expanse of the space. Light and water vapor
are marshaled into an ensemble that symbolizes the hope for symbiosis between
modernity and the natural world.
views his works as "phenomena producers.” For him, reality is not a fixed entity. On the one hand,
it is dependent on the perceiver; on the other hand, it is
not a purely psychic construct but the result of interaction with the
surroundings. In light of this consideration, the focus of "The Weather Project" is laid not on nature itself but on the creation of a
specific atmosphere to develop the interaction between environment and
perception. Especially with the media like light and air, viewers are enabled
to experience the generated atmospheric world emotionally.
the atmospheric design of "The Weather Project," three aspects are to be highlighted.
air, and water are creative elements Eliasson often uses. In an experimental
situation, their existence is strongly perceived and experienced. In "The Weather Project," a hazy dry-ice machine hangs in the air, further
diffusing the light and drifting and coalescing like clouds. Fine mist shrouds
the appearance of the whole building and obscures individual objects. Through
the mediation of the mist, the yellow sun above the front emanates diffuse light. Consequently, an unobstructed vision
fails, and hazy, indistinct images are created. Under this condition,
everything becomes vague and boundaries are blurred. With the increasing
density of misty clouds, the visibility is gradually reduced.
both the shape and the boundary of the objects become completely blurred, it is
considerably more difficult to grasp spatial depth, specific contours, and
details of individual objects from any visual angle. In this regard, uniformity
of the soft, hazy, yellow mist encompasses the entire field of perception. A
spatial phenomenon is thus created by which visitors feel surrounded. All
things are merged into a harmonious whole. The interplay between mist and light, in particular, contributes to strengthening
this holistic effect. All-pervasive mist shines
through what we see so that the whole landscape is covered with a layer of
manifestation of the mist changes with the position of visitors. When drawing closer to the bridge
intersecting the space, more discernible cloud-like formations arise.
Furthermore, the constructed weather situation is not static but changes over time and is in constant motion. Throughout the day,
the concentration of vapor increases until a hovering cloud forms. When water
vapor concentration increases to a certain extent, faint, cloud-like formations come into being and then
dissipate across the space.
Eliasson, perceptual process is also part of an artwork. In this connection,
the active participation of visitors is placed in the foreground of his
artistic creations. For instance, in 1993, using fresnel, water, nozzles, hose,
foil, wood, and pump, he created a
glittering rainbow in a dark room. Based on the principle of refraction, the
forms of appearance of the rainbow were dependent on the positions of viewers.
Even adjacent viewers couldn't see the same rainbow. In connection with this
work, he emphasized: “If the light doesn't go into your eyes, there's no
rainbow.” That is to say, the completion of artworks is
inseparable from visitors' collaboration. “For without the viewer(s) and their
subjectivity, the works are vacated.” Starting from this point, “the primacy of the viewer's
body, along with his or her perception, position and orientation,” occupies the
central position of Eliasson's works. Furthermore, Eliasson shows particular interest in the
relationship between individuals and the surrounding situation.
regard, Eliasson's work can be interpreted as the practical implementation of
Arnold Berleant's concept of aesthetic engagement.
According to Berleant, “aesthetic appreciation is active perceptual
engagement...always with a perceptual focus.” As an alternative to the Kantian aesthetic notion of disinterestedness that
focused on a contemplative, distancing attitude towards artistic appreciation
and thus led to the separation of spectators and artworks, aesthetic engagement
focuses on active participation in the appreciative process, which concerns the contextuality of art experience, the
complete perceptual involvement, and the interplay of
different sense modalities. In this sense, aesthetic engagement prioritizes a
holistic, participatory approach to understanding aesthetic appreciation that is essentially “perceptually active, direct, and
intimate.” On this basis, the aesthetic value lies neither in
artworks nor in viewers but in their interactive processes. Berleant further points out that the approach of
aesthetic engagement corresponds not only to the contemporary artistic
innovations but also to “the pervasiveness of aesthetic perception of all
regions of experience.”
the mirrored ceiling, artificial lights, and fog machine, Eliasson created such
an immersive environment that is full of water vapor and intensely luminous
yellow color. In the experience process,
visitors freely walk around the huge room or leisurely lay on the floor,
looking up at the ceiling. The body embeds them, together with their
multifarious ways of perception and sense experiences, into the environment so
that the perceiving subjects and the perceived objects are interrelated with
each other and merged into a unified whole. Visitors wander within this space
with their perception, which gives them the feeling of being in space. Correspondingly, an infinite range of affective qualities, such as quiet, cheerful, peaceful, mysterious,
and melancholic, enter into the field of
atmospheric experience. In this regard, the experimental design opens up a
multi-sensory access to weather events.
of light medium occupies a central position in Eliasson's works. In this sense,
he is also recognized as a light artist.
For him, light not only concerns the level of technical physics but can also be
used in a metaphysical, spiritual sense. In "The Weather Project," the focus of this respect is placed on the experience of
the representations of the sun and sunlight. A
glance at the development of human civilizations shows that the sun-worship was
and is predominant in various
cultures. In this regard, the sun is not only the source of light and warmth but is experienced as the incarnation of god, the embodiment of
supernatural-divine or natural powers. In the
Egyptian solar religion, the positive significance of the sun was emphasized, while the ancient Mexicans
related such worship to the fear-inspiring drinker of human blood. The image of the sun against a dark background ordinarily corresponds
to the Yin-Yang concept of
Chinese traditional philosophy. For
Christians, the light
symbolizes the transfiguration of Christ and
reveals what is otherwise invisible to the mortal eye. The profound
spiritual relationship with the sun has thereby
birth to diverse pictorial representations and images. In "The Weather Project," through the light media, a situation was created that
presents not only a physical phenomenon but also inspires a comprehensive range
of understandings of the sun and sunlight rooted in numerous cultural
the modern technique, the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern was transformed into a
playful environment of sensual pleasures. Meanwhile, Eliasson also examines the
staging strategies of a museum system manipulating
art appreciation and seeks ways of revealing these hidden means. Traditionally,
museum is an institution where our perception can
easily be mediated or manipulated. This takes advantage of the fact that, in aesthetic experience, the relationship between cause
and effect is too often disregarded by appreciators. Moreover, the control
strategies of museums are frequently carried out in a covert manner so that it
is difficult to immediately notice ideology, values, and beliefs behind various representations. Of course,
the tendency of hiding control strategies not only exists in museum system but
covers different aspects of society, such as politics,
economics, religion, science, and education. In the
high-tech age, this situation seems to be getting worse. The strategies of atmospheric staging are extended to
almost all aspects of daily life, for example, in design, advertising, media, architecture, cosmetics, and so
on, through technically generated media, like lighting, acoustics, and odors. Usually we are exposed to them under
subliminal conditions and finally fall into manipulation.
artistic creations contribute to an awakening of the awareness of the
manipulative techniques and strategies? Eliasson “regards the museum as a
microcosm of society, a situation that parallels the conditions of the world
outside.” In his opinion, society should embrace an entanglement
of experiences, knowledge, and idiosyncrasies.
Similarly, the museum's structure should also incorporate heterogeneous
viewpoints and values. In contrast to
traditional artworks, whose instruments and techniques
related to atmospheric design were often hidden or implicit, Eliasson
deliberately exposes apparatuses, like lamps, mirrors,
projection foil, haze machines, mirror foil, and scaffolding, that enable viewers to reassess the surroundings shaping their
perceptions. Starting from this point, revealing the construction behind the
construction forms a further foundation of the atmospheric design in "The Weather Project." One good example in this regard is the use of mirrors. Eliasson holds “a mirror up to the institution, making
it reflects upon itself and in turn, becomes more transparent to the
audience.” The structure of the mirrored ceiling can be clearly
observed from the upper story. A further example is his work “Lavafloor” (2002). He covered the floor of a
gallery with several tons of igneous rocks from Iceland. Viewers had to walk carefully across
the room. “Each step became more precarious than the last, as the vulcanized
matter crunched underfoot.” Therefore, by creating quasi-natural atmosphere in an
unnatural setting, Eliasson help visitors reexamine the perceived surroundings.
the unusual environment created by Eliasson often causes a strange, unfamiliar
feeling among appreciators that enables them to turn their attention
to the responses of their own body. When analyzing a perceived object, we often
ignore the fact that perception is the channel in which to grasp what is perceived. Eliasson notes, “our ability to see ourselves seeing — or to see
ourselves in the third person, or actually to step out of ourselves and see the
whole set-up with the artifact, the subject and the object — that particular
quality also gives us the ability to criticize ourselves...[and gives] the
subject a critical position, or the ability to criticize one's own position in
this perspective.” In order to achieve this goal, Eliasson's works usually
challenge the habitual patterns of perception and thus open up completely new
opportunities for experience. This is mainly represented by the constantly changing
appearances of experimental arrangements demanding a more active
participation of appreciators. Both emotional and intellectual elements of
perception are thus strongly activated.
Eliasson's creations practically echo the
body-phenomenological theory of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Merleau-Ponty
prioritizes the central role of perceiving body in understanding the world's
makeup. In his opinion, the so-called objective world is essentially the world
we perceive. In this sense, the body is our general medium
for apprehending the world and, as a construction of perception, the reality is
merely one representation among a wide range of internal representations of the
world. Meanwhile, Merleau-Ponty emphasizes that an elementary prerequisite for
understanding the nature of perception is that we should try to transform the
perception into the object of consciousness. In this way, the perception in motion and the
observation of the perception in motion are closely intertwined.
plays a significant part in our daily life. It is “a subject that shapes the
script of everyday life, ...a subject that touches everyone.” Usually, the relevant information is obtained from
weather forecasts that, by means of quantitative and/or experimental methods,
concentrate on the factual existence of weather events. Consequently, our
immediate, multisensory experience of weather is relegated to a symbolic level
through various weather data and weather signs. In fact, human relationship with weather phenomena, in a certain place, at a particular time, primarily exists in a sensually perceptible way that is essentially atmospheric. For Eliasson, weather events
are essentially uncontrollable. Natural scenes that we experience, such as seasons, day and night, sunshine,
wind, rain, and thunder or lightning, are
always accessible only through
experience as phenomena, and as such they are from the outset imbued with
atmospheric values. In this sense, the decisive factor is not what we
perceive but how we perceive something.
the combination of high-tech and natural elements, "The Weather Project" devoted itself to creating atmospheric space for the
immersive experience of visitors. The museum itself was hence transformed into a site goal of which was
not to provide meteorological information but to produce immediate,
multi-sensory experience. Meanwhile, Eliasson attaches importance to the
reflection on perceptions as well as on the surroundings evoking these
perceptions. During the viewers’ appreciation,
perception is synchronized with reflection, which is characterized by
activating the consciousness of the staging behind the perceived
representations and of the perception
activities. On the one hand, through the deliberate exposure of the
tension between truth and representation, Eliasson highlights the
coexistence of immediate sensation and also
intellectual comprehension, and thus guides viewers to
critically examine their perception of the surroundings. On the other hand,
through creating situations enabling viewers to reorder their perception of the
environment and their place within it, Eliasson's work consequently challenges our conventional understanding of the environment.
Dr. Zhuofei Wang, Chinese-German scholar, is Assistant Professor
of the Institute for Philosophy and the Department of Art History at
the University of Kassel. Her Qualification for German Professorship project is on “Atmosphäre als
Kategorie einer Naturästhetik” at the same institutes. Her current
interests cover body phenomenology, aisthetik, and environmental art.
She has published more than 40 papers of philosophical aesthetics and
art theory in Chinese, German, and English. She has also translated many
articles from German or English to Chinese. She is a council member of the German Society for Aesthetics (DGÄ).
Published on March 8, 2018.
 "Atmosphäre,” in Deutsches Fremdwörterbuch. Bd. 2,
ed. Hans Schultz (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996), pp. 454-459, first ref. on p. 454, my translation.
 Cf. Andreas Rauh, Die besondere Atmosphäre. Ästhetische Feldforschungen
(Bielefeld: Transcript, 2012), p. 32.
 "Aura,” in Ästhetische Grundbegriffe: Band 1: Absenz
- Darstellung, ed. Karlheinz Barck (Stuttgart: Metzler, 2000), pp. 400-414,
 Walter Benjamin, Das
Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1980), p.
 Cf. Gernot Böhme, Atmosphäre:
Essays zur neuen Ästhetik (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2013), pp. 30.
translation was inspired by the suggestion of Mădălina Diaconu.
 This formulation followed the suggestion of Mădălina Diaconu.
 The last two examples were corrected by
 Cf. Jean-Paul
Thibaud: "Die sinnliche Umwelt von Städten. Zum Verständnis urbaner
Atmosphären,” in Die Kunst der Wahrnehmung. Beiträge zu einer
Philosophie der sinnlichen Erkenntnis, ed. Michael Hauskeller
(Kusterdingen: Die Graue Edition, 2003), pp. 280-297; ref. on p. 289.
 This explanation was inspired by the suggestion of Mădălina Diaconu.
 Cf. Jean-Paul Thibaud: "Die sinnliche Umwelt von
Städten. Zum Verständnis urbaner Atmosphären,” in Die Kunst der
Wahrnehmung. Beiträge zu einer Philosophie der sinnlichen Erkenntnis, ed.
Michael Hauskeller (Kusterdingen: Die Graue Edition, 2003), pp. 280-297; ref.
on p. 289.
Grynsztejn, Olafur Eliasson (London:
Phaidon, 2002), p. 14.
May, “Meteorologica,” in Olafur Eliasson: The Weather Project, ed. Susan May (London: Tate
Publishing, 2003), pp. 15–28; ref.on p. 19.
Berleant, Aesthetics beyond the
Arts: New and Recent Essays (Farnham:
Ashgate, 2012), p. viii.
Berleant, "What is Aesthetic Engagement?" Contemporary Aesthetics, 12 (2013).
Berleant, Aesthetics beyond the Arts:
New and Recent Essays (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), p. vii.
 Cf. Arnold
Berleant, "What is Aesthetic Engagement?" Contemporary Aesthetics,
 Cf. Armin Kesser, "The Distribution of Solar
Cultures,” in The Sun in Art: Sun Symbolism of Past and Present, in Pagan
and Christian Art, Popular Art, Fine Art and Applied Art, ed. Walter Herdeg
(Zurich: Herdeg, The Graphis Press, 2003), pp. 11-12; ref. on p. 10.
 This formulation was corrected by Mădălina Diaconu.
 This formulation was corrected by Mădălina Diaconu.
May, “Meteorologica,” in Olafur Eliasson: The Weather Project, ed. Susan May (London: Tate
Publishing, 2003), pp. 15–28; ref.on p. 22.
 Madeleine Grynsztejn, Olafur Eliasson (London: Phaidon, 2002), p. 10.
 Cf. Maurice
Merleau-Ponty, The Phenomenology of Perception (London: Routledge,
2000), p. 5.
 Susan May,
“Meteorologica,” in Olafur Eliasson: The
Weather Project, ed. Susan May (London: Tate Publishing, 2003), pp. 15–28;
ref. on p. 22.
 This formulation was corrected by Mădălina Diaconu.
 This idea was inspired by Mădălina Diaconu.
 Cf. Susan May,
“Meteorologica,” in Olafur Eliasson: The
Weather Project, ed. Susan May (London: Tate Publishing, 2003), pp. 17-18.