Numerous contemporary philosophers
have invoked the idea that art is best understood as a social practice in order
to distinguish among art kinds or to distinguish Art from closely related
practices such as Design. Many general accounts of social practices and of art
practices in particular claim that sets of shared assumptions or norms are a
key constituent of practices. But some standard accounts of social practices
interpret these shared norms with the concept of "rules" or "agreements."
I argue that the idea of rules or agreements is theoretically inadequate and
should be replaced by what the philosopher of science, Joseph Rouse, calls "mutual
normative accountability." I then illustrate the theoretical value of such
a replacement by discussing the differences between Art practices and Design
agreements; art; design; fine
art; mutual accountability; norms; practices; roles; routes of circulation; rules
1. Practices and the "pragmatic constraint"
I have been encouraged to consider
a practice approach to distinguishing art kinds by the way Amie Thomasson,
Sherri Irvin, Noel Carroll, Gary Iseminger, Peter Lamarque, and David Davies, have
each in their different ways developed positions in the ontology of art that
treat practices as a "pragmatic constraint" on theorizing. More
recently, both Nicholas Wolterstorff and Dominic Lopes have developed accounts
of art practices, and Lopes has offered a persuasive account? of aesthetic practices. Given
the widespread invocation of the concept of social practices in aesthetics
today, it would still seem worthwhile to address some theoretical issues
surrounding practices. As
an exploratory venture, this paper will focus on a critique of the idea that "rules"
or "agreements" are a crucial element in the shared assumptions identifying
proceeding, I need to address a couple of terminological ambiguities. First, what some writers call "practices"
others call "institutions," as in George Dickie's "institutional"
definition of art or in John Searle's influential social ontology. In
this paper, I distinguish between
practices and institutions, treating institutions as one aspect of the larger
set of activities and relations that constitute an identifiable social
second terminological problem arises from the fact that some social scientists and
philosophers have used "art world" for what others call art
Gary Iseminger's book, The Aesthetic
Function of Art, which has a very helpful discussion of the "practice
of art," ends up making practice interchangeable with the idea of the "art
world" as an informal institution. In
this paper, I will use "practice" throughout to avoid confusion with
institutional definition projects, and to emphasize social ontology rather than
the empirical study of institutions, although the results of the empirical
sciences are important to a fully adequate theoretical account as Dominic Lopes
3. Some elements of social practices
A practice approach, as I
see it, would focus on the network of relations within which works or performances
are constituted as arts of one kind
or another. What sorts of things make up these "networks of relations"?
Here are just a few elements often referenced in general discussions of social practices,
1) Shared, but contested, assumption or rules, and
2) Shared, but contested, histories, which inform patterns of
activities such as
3) typical roles and their behaviors as well as
4) typical routes of circulation and their
course, the above list of elements is not meant to be exhaustive and I have used
"typical" and "contested" to stress that most social practices
are a matter of ongoing constitution in which the participants are constantly
interacting with each other concerning both the ends and means of the practice,
including which parts of its history are most relevant. Moreover, if we were to
look at art or aesthetic practices in particular, other elements such as intention and media would come into play. This paper will consider primarily the
place of shared assumptions, rules and norms.
Stability, identity and rules
Given the multi-faceted character
of art practices, and the frequent emergence of new practices, do named practices
like fine arts or design arts have enough stability to make the concept of practice
useful for analysis? Among philosophers, the primary way of explicating the
coherence of practices has traditionally been by way of an analysis of their shared assumptions articulated as rules, which are often conceived on an
analogy with formal games. In what follows, I will propose that
reconceiving the idea of shared assumptions as mutually accountable norms of action might give us a more useful
practice concept in general and for the arts and aesthetic experience in
accounts of practices
The problem with rules, as
Wittgenstein argued, is that their application can lead to an endless regress
of interpretations. Yet Wittgenstein believed there is "a way of grasping a rule which is not an interpretation,
but is exhibited in what we call 'obeying the rule' and 'going against it' in
actual cases." Later,
he says that if he has exhausted attempts to justify an action, "I have
reached bedrock, and my spade is turned. Then I am inclined to say, 'This is simply
what I do.'"
Recent approaches to
practices as rule-governed follow Wittgenstein to the extent of emphasizing constitutive
rather than regulative rules. The most influential account comes from John
Searle, who claims that we can codify the rules that "constitute" or
make social institutions possible. Like
chess or baseball, he argues, institutional facts such as money only exist so
long as people continue to accept them as constituted. Searle grants that most
people will not be conscious of the actual rules underlying practices, but
claims that humans have evolved a "set of dispositions that are sensitive
to the rule structure."
Despite the many virtues of Searle's
account, his way of explicating rules by analogy with games like chess and baseball
obscures the dynamic nature of many social practices. Formal games have codified
rules and fixed boundaries. But many social practices not only overlap
neighboring ones, but are more like the spontaneous games children devise where
the "rules" are often invented on the spot and subject to revision as
one or another player calls out some new twist. Searle believes that all such informal
social practices, even "friendship, dates, cocktail parties" could be
codified, even though codification, he admits ,would deprive us of "flexibility,
spontaneity and informality." This
admission underlines a major problem with his "structure of rules" account
of practices; it suggests a static view of patterns of activity, whereas many practices
are constantly undergoing varying rates of change.
B. Dialogical approaches to practices
Both Peter Lamarque,
reflecting on literary practices, and Joseph Rouse, reflecting on scientific
practices, distance themselves from the primacy of rules, although Lamarque clings
to a form of the rules approach that he calls "agreements." Lamarque's
careful exegesis of Wittgenstein's views on practices and rules leads him to
say: "there is more to a practice than being constituted by rules and it
is more illuminating to think of conforming to a practice as engaging in
activities of a certain kind . . . than merely to emphasize" the rules. But
Lamarque goes on to say that "agreement in action" is not separable
from rules, and in fact that "there has to be a bedrock of agreement for
there to be any kind of stability" to a practice. Literary
practice, for example, requires agreement on a canon and on reading in terms of
form, style, and theme. Although
Lamarque's account of the place of rules is suppler than Searle's, by insisting
on a "bedrock of agreement," Lamarque's account still tends to minimize
the importance of the ongoing debates and innovations that are part of artistic
I believe Joseph Rouse's
discussion of scientific practices offers a way to better articulate how practices
can be both open and yet relatively stable. Rouse argues that we should not
look for some pre-existing, underlying agreement on the nature of science, but
see the practices of science as held together by what he calls their "mutual
normative accountability," an accountability which is expressed in the way
individual scientific performances "bear on one another" in a "network
of mutual interaction." Thus,
each move in developing a scientific theory or designing an experiment is
accountable to other participants in the practice, who will repeat, translate, infer,
correct, refute, or confirm it. As a
consequence, science's "patterns of interaction" are temporal through
and through since mutual accountability also includes past participants. Alasdair MacIntyre's discussion of ethics in After Virtue also stresses that the continuity
and identity of many practices is defined in part through the struggles that
make up the history of that practice. Like MacIntyre, Rouse claims that the
interaction with other performances within a practice only becomes normative
when it occurs "in a way that can be understood to be for the sake of
something at stake in the interaction."
But that means the mutual accountability
is equally directed to the future since the aims and issues for the sake of
which the participants are interacting are never finally decided and no one
perspective on a practice is "privileged in advance." Accordingly,
unlike Searle, who tends to reduce norms to rules, Rouse contrasts "norms," understood as mutual accountability in
action, with the idea of "rules" when they are conceived as fixed and
pre-existing agreements. Rouse concludes that the coherence of scientific
practices is determined by the "mutual accountability of constituent performances
to issues . . . whose resolution is always prospective."
5. Application to distinguishing design arts from
I believe the general form
of Rouse's account of the normativity of scientific practices can illuminate
how art practices, which are constantly subject to debate and change, can
nevertheless have an "always prospective" identity. Trying to
guarantee stability through "rules," or "agreements," on
the other hand, can easily lead us to underplay the major advantage of a practice
approach, namely, its concern with patterns of activities. Here, it is worth remembering that the "bedrock"
Wittgenstein speaks of hitting with his shovel is not a set of rules or agreements,
but "simply what I do." In
a practice approach to art kinds, then, it will be at least as important to understand the roles,
behaviors, routes of circulation, and other activities that constitute a
practice, as it will to articulate a set of shared assumptions believed to be implicit
in the practice as a whole.
I now want to test such a
reliance on "mutual accountability" rather than "rules" or "agreements"
in our understanding of art practices by attempting to disentangle some issues
raised by current claims that such instances of design as fashion or perfume
should be treated as fine art (rather than design art). The curator, Zoë Ryan,
has claimed that the conceptual approach of the fashion designers whose works
she exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago in 2012 is "elevating"
their designs to "the status of fine art." Another curator, Chandler Burr, exhibited a
dozen commercial perfumes at the Museum of Arts & Design in New York in
2013, claiming that perfumes are "actually works of art, equal . . . to
painting, sculpture, music, architecture, and film." Some critics have responded enthusiastically
to such claims with talk of "blurred boundaries" and "border
crossings." But I believe we need a
more nuanced theoretical account of the relation of Art and Design. Art status claims like Ryan's or Burr's raise
the question of whether there are theoretical grounds for distinguishing between
Art and Design as practices constituted not by fixed rules or agreements, but by
always prospective norms based on mutual accountability.
First, I need to make a
methodological clarification. In briefly
contrasting Art and Design practices in the next paragraphs I will focus on fine
art and design art as umbrella categories, although one might apply a practice
analysis to various sub-categories within
either set, for example, to product, fashion or graphic design. Second, we need
to keep in mind that the term "design" is often used in a verbal
sense to designate a process common
to all sorts of practices, including the fine arts, whereas I will be
considering the concepts of "design" and "fine art" as
referring to named sets of social practices or professions.
I will consider only two norms
of action in typical design practices and fine art practice, the norms reflected
in roles and in routes of circulation. If we look at the normative role involved in the activity of designing,
it is clear that designers' actions are constrained by the practical needs and
desires of users. In the activity of fine artists,
by contrast, attending to practical constraints is purely optional, since the
norms of contemporary artistic practice permit artists to perform, use, make, or
commission, anything, in any way, for any reason. As for the recipients of
designed objects, their roles typically involve using or consuming them, though
often with a concern for aesthetic as well as practical satisfaction. The roles
of audiences for the visual fine arts, by contrast, have become as variable as
the freedom of contemporary artists, who now solicit from audiences many forms
of cognitive and affective engagement, including participation in bringing
works into being.
Turning to routes of circulation, designers obviously
circulate their creations through standard commercial channels, reviews in design,
product or lifestyle publications, and occasionally their works may end up in
design galleries or a special section of art museums. Although most fine art works typically circulate
through art exhibitions, art galleries, art museums, and periodicals, there is
a long history of trying to get art and life back together through installations,
performances, and events outside traditional venues, although such works usually
end up circulating through images in fine art venues, including art-identified
Yet, in apparent
contravention of these normative roles and routes, individual artists or
designers may temporarily assume one another's roles. Some designers and
architects have created paintings or sculptures and certain works of contemporary
fashion, product or architectural design are themselves highly sculptural and
sometimes quite impractical as well, so that some design works do seem to
straddle the boundary between design and art. From the side of contemporary art
practice, artists sometimes shift into the role of designers by accepting the constraints
of practicality as in Andrea Zittel's series of living units. As
for overlapping routes of circulation, one of the things that got me thinking
about the issue of rules in practices, was the way some art curators take instances
of fashion or perfume design out of their normal patterns of circulation and
insert them into fine art circuits.
Yet, to more fully
understand these intersecting roles and routes, we also need to consider the intertwined
histories of art and design. When the category of Fine Art first emerged in the
18th century, most theorists included architecture in its core
extension, but often excluded the applied or decorative arts. In the 19th century,
this exclusion was reinforced by the creation of separate museums for the applied
or decorative arts in Europe, and separate departments for decorative arts within
American museums, sometime renamed departments of design in the early 20th
century. Thus, until the early twentieth century architectural design was
considered a fine art whereas the applied arts or design art sub-disciplines were
usually given a subordinate position.
What has changed over the
last half century is the expansion of the old disciplinary list of the visual fine
arts, originally centered on painting, sculpture and architecture, then opened
to photography and film, and now to conceptual, installation, performance, and participatory
practices and numerous mixtures. In this post-disciplinary atmosphere, in which
anything can become a vehicle for art, the fact that designers and artists can
switch roles and curators can manipulate routes of circulation is the kernel of
truth in the claims that the boundaries between Art and Design have
Even so, the existence of
boundary crossings and borderline or hybrid works does not excuse us from
thinking through the normative differences
that still exist among practices. By focusing on networks of mutually accountable norms of action that constitute
practices, we can account for the existence of cross border traffic and so-called
"blurred boundaries," but at the same time show that producers and receivers
within each practice act in different, if sometimes exchangeable roles,
circulate works along different, if sometimes intersecting, routes, and reference
different, if intertwined, histories. In sum, the practice approach I am
exploring distinguishes among art kinds by analyzing the normative patterns of activities and histories (rather than "rules")
that give a prospective identity to various art kinds.
That said, there are several
objections one might raise, as well as further issues that need to be addressed.
I will briefly mention and comment on two objections and three issues.
6. Objections and issues
1) Can a practice approach avoid circularity? Yes, since even though
the same kind terms may be used as a modifier for several practice elements,
the latter form a network of distinct activities that could be described in
practice approaches inherently conservative as Richard Shusterman claims? Not unless we think of practices as constituted
by static rules. As indicated above, any characterization of a practice is
itself an intervention in the process of mutual accountability that constitutes
interventions may have a conservative effect, but they may also tend to push a
practice in a new direction.
1) At what level of generality is a practice analysis most effective? Not
for separating art in general from non-art since the idea of art in its
broadest sense is less a distinct practice than a vast continuum of human
practices, or, as Sonia Dedivy has put it, using Wittgenstein's analogy, "art
is like a thick rope made of many different intertwining fibers." In
Beyond Art, Dominic Lopes has offered
a detailed argument against continuing the quest for a definition of the
category of (fine) art or the fine arts as a group rather than focusing our
energies on analyzing the practices of particular arts.
2) What is the explanatory scope of a practice approach without rules? It
is meant to inform but not substitute for such things as developing an ontology
of the work concept or a theory of aesthetic judgment. For
a practice approach to be applicable to individual works, it also needs to be
combined with a theory of intention or sanction along the lines suggested by
Sherrie Irvin, since individuals can chose various roles and routes.
3) Can a practice approach without rules offer a
principle that will determine which elements of a practice are central or how
many such elements are needed to distinguish among art kinds? In the practice view I am suggesting, the point is to
replace talk of fixed rules or principles by the idea of a prospective identity through the mutual accountability of
performances within the on-going history of a practice.
In closing, I want to return
briefly to some curatorial claims that got me thinking along these lines in the
first place. My guess is that one reason Zoë Ryan and Chandler Burr insist on "elevating"
fashion or perfume into fine art is the honorific connotations still clinging to
the category of fine art or to Art with a capital "A." But "fine art" is not simply a
status epithet. It also signifies a historically distinctive, if constantly
changing, set of practices in contrast to the practices of the applied and design
although I agree that the latter are as important and deserving of respect as the
fine arts, I believe the normative practices of the design arts and fine arts
continue to constitute different kinds of
art and to that extent it is useful to maintain a distinction between Art
and Design, so long as we do not regard it as a hierarchical relation implying superior
aesthetic and cultural value for Art over Design.
Larry Shiner is Professor
Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Illinois at Springfield. He is the
author of The Invention of Art: A
Cultural History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001) and Art Scents: Exploring the Aesthetics of
Smell and the Olfactory Arts (forthcoming from Oxford University Press).
Published July 16, 2019.
 Amie L. Thomasson, "The
Ontology of Art and Knowledge in Aesthetics," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63:3 (2005), 221-229;
Sherri Irvin, "The Ontological Diversity of Visual Artworks," in
Kathleen Stock & Katherine Thomson-Jones, eds., New Waves in Aesthetics (Basingstoke, England: Palgrave-Macmillan,
2008); Gary Iseminger, The Aesthetic
Function of Art (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004); Peter Lamarque, Word and Object: Explorations in the
Metaphysics of Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010); David Davies, "The
Primacy of Practice in the Ontology of Art," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67:2 (2009):159-171, and
Davies' Art as Performance (Oxford:
Blackwell, 2004), pp. 16-25 for an extended discussion of the "pragmatic
constraint." Noël Carroll has increasingly tended to emphasize the
narrative or historical aspect of practices.
See "Art, Practice, and Narrative," The Monist 71:2 (1988), 140-56 and the essays on the definition of
art in Art in Three Dimensions
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
Wolterstorff, Art Rethought: The Social
Practices of Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015). Dominic Lopes
takes a practice approach to understanding the individual arts in Beyond Art (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2018), pp. 147-159, and to aesthetic value in Being for Beauty: Aesthetic Agency and Value (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2018), pp. 119-123. To attempt even a sketch of Lopes' rich
account of practices would take us too far afield for purposes of this paper.
 Of course, a
practice approach extends well beyond the philosophy of art. The idea of
practices plays a central role in Alisdair MacIntyre's After
Virtue (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981) and in Joseph
Rouse's How Scientific Practices Matter:
Reclaiming Philosophical Nauralism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2002). Many social scientists have described their primary object as social
practices, although sociological theories of practice as behavioral
regularities have been heavily criticized by S. Turner, The Social Theory of Practices: Tradition, Tacit Knowledge, and
Presuppositions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).
 George Dickie, Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional
Analysis (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974). Peter Bürger also speaks
of art as an "institution" throughout his Theory of the Avant-Garde (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1984). Searle sometimes speaks of practices occurring within
institutions. John R. Searle, The
Construction of Social Reality (New York: Free Press, 1995) and Making the Social World: The Structure of
Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
 MacIntyre argues
that institutions tend to corrupt practices. After Virtue, pp. 194-95.
 Howard Becker, Art Worlds (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1982); Sarah Thornton, Seven
Days in the Artworld (New York: W.W. Norton, 2009).
 Iseminger reasonably
suggests that when "there are practices of absorbing interest to those who
engage in them" we commonly speak of the "worlds of those practices."
These worlds, he continues, are informal institutions by virtue of "a
web of mutual recognition" rather than explicit membership requirements.
With these concepts in place Iseminger can conclude that "art is a
practice and those who participate in it are members of the informal
institution of the artworld." The
Aesthetic Function of Art, pp. 67-68.
 Dominic Lopes, Aesthetics on the Edge: Where Philosophy
Meets the Human Sciences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018). Another reason I follow a practice approach
rather than trying to define design
and fine art is that I agree with Aaron Meskin that shifting the definition
project from art in general to the particular arts may run into the same
problems that have led many to abandon the definition project for art in
general. "From Defining Art to
Defining the Individual Arts: The Role of Theory in the Philosophies of Arts,"
in New Waves in Aesthetics, pp.
 Classic statements
can be found in John Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules," The Philosophical Review 64:1 (1955),
3-5 and Peter Winch, The Idea of a Social
Science and its Relation to Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1958).
 Ludwig Wittgenstein,
Philosophical Investigations, I (Oxford:
Blackwell, 1953), ¶ 201.
 Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, I, ¶ 217.
There are two very useful recent discussions of Wittgenstein on practices and
rules in relation to art. Peter Lamarque,
"Wittgenstein, Literature, and the Idea of a Practice," British Journal of Aesthetics 50:4
(2010), 375-388, and Sonia Dedivy, "Art from a Wittensteinian Perspective:
Constitutive Norms in Context," Journal
of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 72:1 (2014), 67-82. Although I have found
Dedivy's essay particularly helpful and congenial to my own perspective on
practices, it came too late for me to fully incorporate its interpretation of
 Searle, Construction of Social Reality, pp. 28-29.
 Peter Lamarque, "Wittgenstein,
Literature, and the Idea of a Practice," British Journal of Aesthetics 50:4 (2010), 384.
 "The rules are
made apparent in the activities that ground the practice, and the agreements
endorsed by practitioners. Shared assumptions by practitioners 'regulate' their
'activities' in responding . . . to literary works." "Wittgenstein,
Literature, and the Idea of a Practice," pp. 385-386.
 Lamarque, "Wittgenstein,
Literature and the Idea of a Practice," pp. 385-86.
 Lamarque's position
is perhaps more ambivalent on this issue than I have suggested, as reflected in
his comment just after the passage quoted above: "Whether a reader's
response is in conformity to the 'rules' of the practice is shown not by
looking up the response in a rulebook but by its endorsement, or otherwise by
qualified practitioners. This is why
agreement in action can seem more fundamental than following a rule, even
though the two are not strictly separable." "Wittgenstein, Literature
and the Idea of a Practice," p. 386. It seems that in the last analysis, "rules," for Lamarque,
even when put in scare quotes, trump actions.
 Joseph Rouse, "Practice
Theory," in Handbook of the
Philosophy of Science, Vol. 15: Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology, eds.
Stephen Turner and MarRisjord (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006), p. 530.
 MacIntyre, After Virtue, p. 62.
 Rouse, "Practice
Theory," p. 532.
 On the point about
no perspective being privileged in advance, Rouse refers us to Robert Brandom, Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing
and Discursive Commitment (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994), pp. 660-661.
 Rouse, "Practice
Theory," p. 533.
 It should be noted
that Wittgenstein also speaks sometimes of "agreement in action"
which he relates to "acting in accordance with rules." Lamarque has
helpfully gathered several relevant passages as part of his discussion in "Wittgenstein,
Literature and the Idea of a Practice," p. 384. Wittgenstein's views in this respect, of
course, have been the subject of much debate and my few citations are not meant
to claim any one position as the
 Ryan, Zoë, Fashioning the Object: Bless, Boudicca, and
Sandra Backlund (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012), p.11, p 14.
 Quoted in Barbara
Pollack, "Scents & Sensibility," ARTnews, 110:3, (2011), 92.
 I capitalize Design,
following Glenn Parson's approach in his Philosophy
of Design (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2016).
 Alex Coles has
gathered instances of the cross-over from the fine art to the design side in DesignArt: On Art's Romance With Design
(London: Tate Publishing, 2005). The weaver, Ann Sutton, for example, once
said, "I work . . . sometimes as an artist, sometimes as a designer,
sometimes as a craftsperson." Diane Sheehan and Susan Tebby, Ann Sutton (Aldershot: Lund Humphries,
2003) p. 8.
 For a more developed version of this kind of
argument against circularity see Searle, Construction
of Social Reality, pp. 52-53.
 Shusterman makes his
claim against Nicholas Wolterstorff and Noël Carroll in Pragmatic Aesthetics: Living Beauty, Rethinking Art, (Oxford:
Blackwell, 1992), p. 43.
 Sonia Dedivy, "Art
from a Wittensteinian Perspective," p. 80.
 Dominic Lopes, Beyond Art.
 See Peter Lamarque, Word and Object: Explorations in the
Metaphysics of Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
 Sherri Irvin has
pointed out an interesting interconnection between roles and routes of
institutional circulation in contemporary art practice through her concept of
the "artist's sanction," which refers to the way artists often
specify to galleries and museums how their works should be presented, including
the role audiences should be permitted or encouraged to play "The Artist's
Sanction in Contemporary Art," Journal
of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63:4 (2005), 315-326.
 To adapt the
language of Searle's social ontology to my own ends, the category Fine Art has
lost much of its extensional usefulness, retaining for many people only its
status implications. Yet in Western culture and even globally, fine art as a
set of practices with distinctive institutions remains.